DevOps and Security Glossary Terms

Glossary Terms

CRUD (create, read, update and delete) - definition & overview

In this article
What is CRUD?
CRUD methods
Four CRUD model components explained
CRUD application
Review frequency of CRUD operations commands with Sumo Logic
What is CRUD?
CRUD methods
Four CRUD model components explained
CRUD application
Review frequency of CRUD operations commands with Sumo Logic

What is CRUD?

CRUD is an acronym from the world of computer programming and refers to the four functions considered necessary to implement a persistent storage application: create, read, update and delete. Persistent storage refers to any data storage device that retains power after the device is powered off, such as a hard disk or a solid-state drive. In contrast, random access memory and internal caching are two examples of volatile memory. they contain data that will be erased when they lose power.

Key takeaways

  • The CRUD acronym identifies all of the major functions that are inherent to relational databases and the applications used to manage them, which include Oracle Database, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, and others.
  • The four CRUD functions can perform different types of operations on selected data within the database.
  • CRUD operations are widely used in many applications that are supported by underlying relational databases.
  • Sumo Logic's log aggregation capabilities can be used to monitor the total volume of CRUD commands over time, correlate the results with other important metrics, and help identify and rectify the causes of poor performance.

CRUD methods

Organizations that keep track of customer data, accounts, payment information, health data and other records require storage hardware and applications that provide persistent storage. These data are typically organized into a database, an organized collection of data that may be viewed electronically. There are many types of databases: hierarchical database, graph database, and object-oriented database, to name a few. The most commonly implemented type of database is a relational database, consisting of data tabled in rows and columns and connected to other tables with complementary information by a system of keywords that includes primary and foreign keys.

The CRUD framework identifies all of the major functions inherent to relational databases and the applications used to manage them, including Oracle Database, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL and others.

Four CRUD model components explained

A relational database consists of tables with rows and columns. In a relational database, each row of a table is known as a tuple or a record. Each column of the table represents a specific attribute or field. The four CRUD functions can be called by users to perform different types of operations on selected data within the database. This could be accomplished using code or through a graphical user interface. Let's review each of the four components in-depth to fully appreciate their collective importance in facilitating database interactions.

Create operation

The create function allows users to create a new record in the database. In the SQL relational database application, the Create function is called INSERT. In Oracle HCM Cloud, it is called create. Remember that a record is a row and that columns are termed attributes. A user can create a new row and populate it with data that corresponds to each attribute, but only an administrator might be able to add new attributes to the table itself.

Read operation

The read function is similar to a search function. It allows users to search and retrieve specific records in the table and read their values. Users may be able to find desired records using keywords, or by filtering the data based on customized criteria. For example, a database of cars might enable users to type in "1996 Toyota Corolla," or it might provide options to filter search results by make, model and year.

Update operation

The update function is used to modify existing records in the database. Users may have to modify information in multiple fields to change a record. For example, a restaurant that stores recipes for menu items in a database might have a table whose attributes are "dish," "cooking time," "cost" and "price." One day, the chef decides to replace an ingredient in the dish with something different. As a result, the existing record in the database must be changed, and all attribute values must be changed to reflect the characteristics of the new dish. SQL and Oracle HCM cloud's update function is called "Update."

Delete operation

The delete function allows users to remove records from a database that is no longer needed. SQL and Oracle HCM Cloud have a delete function allowing users to delete one or more records from the database. Some relational database applications may permit users to perform either a hard or soft delete. A hard delete permanently removes records from the database, while a soft delete might update the status of a row to indicate that it has been deleted while leaving the data present and intact.

CRUD application

CRUD operations are widely used in many applications supported by underlying relational databases. These four basic CRUD functions are incredibly versatile in supporting various important functions across different business models and industry verticals. Let's look at an example of how CRUD is implemented.

An enterprise organization maintains a human resources department that helps manage staff and keep track of existing employees. The HR department manages a relational database application with various tables that track different types of employee information:

  • An Employees Table includes attributes such as first and last name, employee identification number, contact number, home address, work location, and any other relevant personal details.
  • An HR Data Table that includes the employee's payroll information, social security number, employee ID and salary.
  • A Locations Table that contains attribute data for each of the company's physical locations, including building ID, address, zip code, the name of the manager, etc.

When a new employee is hired, someone new is added to the payroll, or the company acquires a new location, the HR department creates a record to reflect the changes. If the business needs to send a letter to one or more employees, the read function might be used to find the correct mailing address for the employee. If an employee's salary or contact information changes, the HR department may need to update the existing record to reflect the change.

If an employee leaves the company, the company may choose to perform a soft or hard delete of their information in the database. Here, a soft delete might be appropriate as the organization wishes to retain data on the individual without cluttering up future searches or filtered results.

CRUD testing is a black-box testing technique to validate the functionality of a software product. This term for database testing is applicable for SQL and other databases and ensures proper data mapping, data integrity, ACID properties' maintenance, and business rules' accuracy.

The above example is just one way that CRUD functions enable organizations to achieve their business objectives. CRUD operations are also used to manage forums, eCommerce stores, social media websites, and many other types of applications that are supported by a relational database.

Review frequency of CRUD operations commands with Sumo Logic

IT organizations that deploy databases into the cloud gain important capabilities with Sumo Logic that make it easier to monitor the overall health of the deployment, check slow server status, and rapidly identify errors, slow execution times and stopped servers.

Sumo Logic's log aggregation capabilities can be used to monitor the total volume of CRUD commands over time, correlate the results with other important metrics, and help identify and rectify the causes of poor performance.


When implementing CRUD procedures, what common challenges do developers face?

1. Data validation: Ensuring that inputting or updating data conforms to the required format and constraints can be challenging. Validation errors can lead to data inconsistencies or data loss.

2. Concurrency control: Managing concurrent access to existing data during CRUD operations is crucial to prevent conflicts and maintain data integrity. Implementing strategies like locking mechanisms or optimistic concurrency control can be complex.

3. Error handling: Dealing with errors during CRUD operations, such as network issues, database outages or unexpected input, requires robust error handling to prevent data corruption and ensure reliable system behavior.

4. Performance optimization: Optimizing CRUD operations for efficiency, especially in large-scale applications dealing with a high volume of data, involves considerations like indexing, query optimization and caching to enhance performance.

5. Security: Implementing proper security measures to prevent unauthorized access or malicious attacks on CRUD operations is vital. This includes authentication, authorization, encryption and protection against SQL injection and other vulnerabilities.

6. Transaction management: Ensuring that CRUD operations are atomic, consistent, isolated and durable (ACID properties) can be challenging, especially when dealing with complex transactions that involve multiple operations.

7. Versioning and auditing: Managing data versioning and auditing changes made through CRUD operations for accountability, compliance and tracking can be demanding and require well-designed logging and version control mechanisms.

8. Testing and maintenance: Creating comprehensive tests for CRUD operations to cover various scenarios and maintaining the codebase over time to accommodate changing requirements without introducing regressions are ongoing challenges for developers.

By addressing these challenges effectively, developers can enhance CRUD operations' reliability, security, and performance within their applications.

What are the best practices to secure CRUD functionality in a database?

Some key best practices include:

1. Authentication and authorization: Implement robust authentication mechanisms to verify the identity of users attempting CRUD operations. Utilize role-based access control (RBAC) or attribute-based access control (ABAC) to enforce proper authorization for different users or user groups.

2. Parameterized queries: Use parameterized queries or prepared statements to prevent SQL injection attacks, where malicious input can manipulate database queries. Parameterization helps sanitize user input and reduces the risk of SQL injection vulnerabilities.

3. Data encryption: Encrypt sensitive data at rest and in transit to safeguard it from unauthorized access. Implement encryption mechanisms such as Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) for data protection within the database.

4. Least privilege principle: Adhere to the principle of least privilege by granting users the minimum permissions required to perform their tasks. Avoid providing excessive privileges that could lead to unauthorized data modifications.

5. Audit trails: Maintain audit trails to track changes made through CRUD operations. Logging CRUD activities can help with forensic analysis, compliance auditing and detection of suspicious activities.

6. Secure communication: Use protocols like HTTPS to encrypt data transmitted between the application programming interface (API endpoints) and the database server. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols can ensure data confidentiality during transmission.

7. Regular security updates: Keep database systems updated with security patches and updates to address known vulnerabilities. Regularly monitor security advisories and apply patches promptly to mitigate security risks.

8. Database activity monitoring: Implement database activity monitoring tools to detect and respond to unusual or unauthorized database activities in real time. Monitoring user actions can help prevent data breaches and unauthorized access attempts.

By following these best practices for securing CRUD functionality in a database, organizations can enhance the overall security posture of their applications and protect critical data assets from potential security threats

How can CRUD operations be optimized for better performance in a web application?

1. Indexing: Utilize database indexes on frequently queried database table columns to improve query performance. Indexing helps speed up data retrieval for CRUD operations, especially for search and filter functionalities.

2. Query optimization: Optimize SQL queries by avoiding unnecessary joins, using WHERE clauses effectively, and retrieving only the necessary data. Well-structured queries reduce database load and improve CRUD operation efficiency.

3. Caching: Implement caching mechanisms to store frequently accessed data in memory. Caching can reduce database round trips for repetitive CRUD operations, enhancing overall performance by serving data more quickly.

4. Batch processing: Use batch processing techniques to minimize the number of individual CRUD operations. Bundling multiple operations into a single transaction reduces overhead and improves efficiency, particularly for bulk data operations.

5. Asynchronous processing: Employ asynchronous processing for non-blocking CRUD operations that don't require immediate responses. Asynchronous execution can enhance concurrency and scalability by freeing up resources to handle additional requests.

6. Connection pooling: Optimize database connections by using connection pooling to reuse existing connections instead of creating new ones for each CRUD operation. Connection pooling reduces connection overhead and improves response times.

7. Horizontal scaling: Consider horizontal scaling by distributing CRUD operations across multiple servers or instances. Load-balancing CRUD requests can improve performance by handling increased traffic and reducing the risk of bottlenecks.

8. Database sharding: Implement database sharding to partition data across multiple databases based on predefined criteria. Sharding helps distribute the load evenly and enhances scalability and performance for CRUD operations in large-scale applications.

9. Data denormalization: Denormalize data structures by storing redundant or pre-computed data to avoid complex JOIN operations. Denormalization can speed up read operations in CRUD processes and improve performance for frequently accessed data.

10. Monitoring and optimization: Monitor database performance metrics, analyze query execution times, and identify bottlenecks to continuously optimize CRUD operations. Regular performance tuning and adjustments based on monitoring insights can lead to better overall system performance.

By applying these optimization techniques, developers can significantly enhance the performance of CRUD operations in web applications, resulting in faster response times, improved scalability, and better overall user experience.

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